41st Annual Flint Hills Archaeological Conference

Program and Abstracts

Nebraska History Museum (Oldfather Family Auditorium) History Nebraska

Lincoln, Nebraska

March 15-16, 2019

Sponsors:

History Nebraska

Nebraska Association of Professional Archaeologists

Conference Organizer:

Nolan Johnson

Special Thanks:

The University of Nebraska State Museum and Director Dr. Susan Weller for allowing all conference attendees to tour the new exhibit at Morrill Hall free of charge

Curator Dr. Alan Osborn for giving a tour of the anthropology collections at Nebraska Hall

Amanda Pinkelman and Kelsey Soukup for opening the museum early for the conference

Thanks to Scott Shackelford for assistance with the conference website

Funding for Friday reception and Saturday coffee and snacks provided by the Nebraska Association of Professional Archaeologists

Cover Photo:

This stone knife and slotted bone handle were found together at site 25FR22, a Central Plains tradition component in Franklin County and donated to History Nebraska in 1938.

Program

Friday March 15: Various Locations (See map below)

1:45 – 2:45 PM Registration, Gilmore Room Nebraska History Museum 131 Centennial Mall North, Lincoln, NE 68508

3:00 – 4:00 PM Self-Guided Tour of University of Nebraska State Museum, including newly renovated 4th Floor 645 N 14th St, Lincoln, NE 68508

4:15 – 5:00 PM Tour of Anthropology Collections at Nebraska Hall 645 N 14th St, Lincoln, NE 68508 with Curator Dr. Alan Osborn. Enter on west side of building at the door at the intersection of 16th St. and “W” St.

5:15- 7:30 PM Happy Hour at Green Flash Brewery, 1630 P St., Lincoln, NE 68508, There will be complimentary beer and appetizers while they last sponsored by the Nebraska Association of Professional Archeologists.

Saturday March 16: Oldfather Family Auditorium at the Nebraska History Museum 131 Centennial Mall North, Lincoln, NE 68508

9:00 AM Registration and Refreshments

9:20 AM Rob Bozell (History Nebraska): History and Archeology of Red Cloud Agency 2, Northwest Nebraska.

9:40 AM Nolan Johnson, MaKenzie Coufal,Talon O’Connor, Polly Wimberly, and Nicholas Fogerty (History Nebraska): Artifacts from the 2018 Volunteer Dig at Red Cloud Agency 2.

10:00 AM Brad Logan (Kansas State University): House, Midden, or Palimpsest? Spatial Analysis of Quixote, a Late Woodland Site in the Delaware River Drainage, Northeastern Kansas.

10:20 AM Break

10:40 AM Tricia Waggoner (Kansas Historical Society): Coal, Coke, and Clinkers: The Hunt for a Blacksmith Shop.

11:00 AM Jim D. Feagins (St. Joseph Museum): Stone and Clay Smoking Pipes (1833-1855) from Kenekuk’s Kickapoo Village:  The Cantrell Collection.

11:20 AM Jakob Hanschu (Kansas State University): Producing Spaces in/of Archaeology.

11:40 AM to 1:00 PM Lunch (On Your Own)

1:00 PM Jim Ralston and Lauren Ritterbush (Kansas State University): Virtual Reconstruction of White Plume’s Stone House.

1:20 PM Jeremiah Perkins, Cambria Haley, and David Klamm (Wichita State University): The Cooperative Future of Archaeology and 3D Terrestrial Scanning.

1:40 PM Thomas Thompson, Emily Wagnon, Jaycie Thaemert, Sally Robinson, Lauren Cleeland, Andrew Richard (Open Range Archaeology LLC), and Kevin Blackwood (East Central University): An Extensive Lithic Analysis ‘in the Rough’:Interpretations of Toolstone Material Variability and Utilization at Twenty Phase II Survey Sites within or near the Arkansas River Valley of Oklahoma and Arkansas.

2:00 PM Break

2:20 PM Amy Neumann (University of Nebraska- Lincoln): Consumer Access and Choice in Turn of the 20th Century Lincoln: A Case Study.

2:40 PM Donald J. Blakeslee (Wichita State University): Copycats: New Evidence for Long Distance Exchange in the Great Bend Aspect.

3:00 PM Nolan Johnson (History Nebraska): Exhibit Curation for the Archeologist.

3:20 PM C. Tod Bevitt (Buried Past Consulting, LLC): Winter Fieldwork? Wahoo! Preliminary Results of Recent Investigations in the Wahoo Creek Watershed.

3:40 PM Wrap-up and Location Selection for 2020

Thanks to all who attended and we look forward to seeing everyone again next year.

Abstracts

C. Tod Bevitt (Buried Past Consulting, LLC): Winter Fieldwork? Wahoo! Preliminary Results of Recent Investigations in the Wahoo Creek Watershed

A recently completed winter campaign of field survey focused on eight proposed flood control structures in the upper Wahoo Creek drainage of southwest Saunders County, Nebraska. Under less than ideal weather conditions, intensive survey was carried out on approximately 1,700 acres where a total of 26 archeological sites of prehistoric and historic age were located. While many of these resources are of an ephemeral nature and lack good integrity or opportunity for informing significantly on the past, occasionally sites are found that make i tall worthwhile. This paper presents some of the findings of this recent survey.

Donald J. Blakeslee (Wichita State University): Copycats:  New Evidence for Long Distance Exchange in the Great Bend Aspect

Early historic records from New Mexico mention trade with both Apaches and Jumanos but not with Plains Caddoans.  This led Katherine Spielmann to argue that Apaches acted as intermediaries between the horticultural societies of the Southwest and those of the Plains.  To argue otherwise requires more than just Southwestern artifacts in Great Bend sites. In this paper, two forms of evidence are offered to demonstrate that people from Great Bend sites visited the Pueblos of New Mexico.  New information also suggests the presence of artifacts in great Bend sites that came from extreme distances, although the mechanisms by which they arrived cannot be elucidated at this time.

Rob Bozell (History Nebraska): History and Archeology of Red Cloud Agency 2, Northwest Nebraska

                Red Cloud Agency was moved from the original location in Wyoming to northwest Nebraska in 1873 and is referred to as Red Cloud Agency 2. The post served as the primary agency for the Oglala Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho during a period of warfare and tense relations between these tribes and the United States. The agency featured a large stockade, trading posts, shops, offices,and warehouses. It was surrounded by various Native American camps. Following the killing of an agent in 1874, a military contingent was assigned to the area and established nearby Camp Robinson – later Fort Robinson. After Crazy Horse was killed in 1877, the agency was moved to a new location in South Dakota and the Nebraska site was never reoccupied. It is part of the Fort Robinson-Red Cloud Agency National Historic Landmark. The brief four year occupation of Red Cloud Agency 2 provides fertile archeological ground for a sharper understanding of life during the Plains Indian Wars of the 1870s. The site was the focus of archeological test excavations by History Nebraska in 1958 and again in 2018. This paper summarizes the history and archeology of the agency and discusses archeological research potential.

Jim D. Feagins (St. Joseph Museum): Stone and Clay Smoking Pipes (1833-1855) from Kenekuk’s Kickapoo Village: The Cantrell Collection

A surface collection of 47 fragmented smoking pipes was recovered by a private collector from a half-dozen or so small Kickapoo farmsteads, making up a portion of the non-nucleated, Kenekuk’s village.  This band of Kickapoo from Illinois, along with some accompanying Pottawatomie families, were led by Kenekuk, the Kickapoo prophet.  The village is located in the southeastern portion of the 1832-1854 Kickapoo reservation in northeastern Kansas.  They settled just north of Fort Leavenworth in 1833.  By the time the Kickapoo had reached Kansas, they had been exposed to almost a century and a half of trading interactions with the French, then British, and finally Americans.  This paper presents a description of indigenous pipes and trade pipes and how they reflect one of many examples of material acculturation by this rather unique portion of the Kickapoo tribe.  As with many other tribes their acculturation was mostly on their own terms—selective acculturation.

Jakob Hanschu (Kansas State University): Producing Spaces in/of Archaeology

Archaeologists have long been concerned with the spatiality of the sites they excavate. For example, in the latest edition of American Antiquity (vol. 84, iss. 1)one-hundred percent of the articles and reports included one or more maps. Much of these concerns with spatiality view space as scientific or abstract, though some archaeologists have attempted to discuss spaces as “humanized” (e.g.,Tilley 1997). However, very few scholars seem to be concerned with the types and meanings of spaces that they are actively producing and reproducing through the processes of excavation, mapping, publication, and other activities. In this presentation, I wish to examine how present-day archaeology and archaeologists become involved in creating and portraying sites as particular types of contextualized spaces. This will be accomplished through an exploration of my own experience excavating, mapping, and publishing on 14RY652, a prehistoric burial mound in the north-central Flint Hills, and asynthesis of literature from archaeology, anthropology, human geography, and Science and Technology Studies.

Nolan Johnson, MaKenzie Coufal, Talon O’Connor, Polly Wimberly, and Nicholas Fogerty (History Nebraska): Artifacts from the 2018 Volunteer Dig at Red Cloud Agency 2

                On September 29 and 30, 2018 History Nebraska hosted a volunteer excavation at the Red Cloud Agency 2. The agency is inside of Fort Robinson State Historic Park. Twenty-five volunteers and eight History Nebraska staff braved rain and cold to test four features at the site. Twenty-one test units were excavated in four distinct features. This paper will discuss the excavation and the artifacts recovered. In particular two artifacts recovered at 25DW12, Feature 11, the Frank Yates Trading Post deserve special mention.These are two pieces of a flaked glass. The glass fragments had been carefully flaked to create a sharp, toothed edge. Utilized glass fragments such as these do not often appear in the archeological record of Nebraska.

Nolan Johnson (History Nebraska): Exhibit Curation for the Archeologist

                Exhibit curation is not a task listed in the job description of the archeologists at History Nebraska. However two brave, or perhaps foolish archeologists, proposed to do just that. Beginning with an idea to answer questions that archeologists are always asked, they are currently in the middle of the exhibit process. This paper will tell what they have learned, where they are in the process, and what remains to be done to meet the exhibit opening in October 2019.

Brad Logan (Kansas State University): House, Midden, or Palimpsest?  Spatial Analysis of Quixote, a Late Woodland Site in the Delaware River Drainage, Northeastern Kansas

Excavation of a 64m2block at one of two low mounds at Quixote (14JF420), a Late Woodland site in the Delaware River drainage, northeastern Kansas, provides data for inference of activity areas from the distribution of a variety of material types.  These include burned limestone, fire-cracked rock, other manuported stones, burned and unburned bone, charcoal, debitage,and chipped and ground stone tools. Prolonged occupation ca. AD 890-980, and perhaps later, resulted in a ~50cm thick palimpsest from which, despite blurring by hearth cleaning and dismantlement, traffic, and bioturbation, we may discern a series of hearths and related loci with evidence of cooking, game processing, and chipped stone tool maintenance.

Amy Neumann (University of Nebraska-Lincoln): Consumer Access & Choice in Turn of the 20th Century Lincoln: A Case Study

A salvage archaeology project was undertaken on the campus of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in June 1999 when an honors dormitory was to be built in an area with great archaeological potential. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Lincoln was a notable railroad hub bringing people and imported goods to this rapidly growing city in the Great Plains.The materials recovered during the excavation are a diverse collection of objects characteristic of domestic life around the turn of the twentieth century. This presentation focuses on archaeological artifacts with identified manufacturers recovered from five privy features. These items highlight where goods were coming from, patterns of consumer behavior, and personal choices of residents in this neighborhood.

Jeremiah Perkins, Cambria Haley, and David Klamm (Wichita State University): The Cooperative Future of Archaeology and 3D Terrestrial Scanning

                Over the past two summers, at the archaeological excavation of Etzanoa, we used aLeica P40 scanner to create 3-D models of the excavation units. The accuracy of the measurements is + 1 mm. It is possible to take measurements of features and objects from the model. The scanner has some limitations for recording deep excavations, and a novel method for overcoming them is discussed.

Jim Ralston & Lauren Ritterbush(Kansas State University): Virtual Reconstruction of White Plume’s Stone House

                White Plume was a Kanza Chief and lead signatory on the 1825 treaty,by which the Kanza ceded lands to the U.S. in exchange for annuities, far manimals, and, amongst other things, agricultural resources.  Shortly thereafter, the government built an agency along the lower Kansas River around which a small and diverse community emerged. As apparent compensation for representing the Kanza in the 1825 treaty, White Plume was rewarded with a stone house by the federal government. The house was built in about 1828, two miles northwest of the agency, and was abandoned a few years later. Though there were multiple eyewitnesses to this house and its remains into the late 1800’s, relatively little is known about it, including its precise location and its architectural form. We present newly uncovered information about White Plume’s house, including detailed instructions for its construction, and a three-dimensional model based on that documentary record.  The design is envisioned as a stone version of a Virginia house with a ground-floor hall and parlor, central staircase to a second-floor garret, two galleries or porches,and substantial hardware and trim. Virtual construction of the house has required research and interpretive analysis of frontier architecture, site resources, and the documentary record pertaining thereto and its intended occupants.  This process also has raised questions and hypotheses about the expected archaeological record. Our presentation includes a virtual walk through, discussion of limitations and implications of the model, and White Plume’s role in Kanza history and culture during the early treaty period of Kansas.

Thomas Thompson, Emily Wagnon, Jaycie Thaemert, Sally Robinson, Lauren Cleeland, Andrew Richard (Open Range Archaeology LLC), and Kevin Blackwood(East Central University): An Extensive Lithic Analysis ‘in the Rough’:Interpretations of Toolstone Material Variability and Utilization at Twenty Phase II Survey Sites within or near the Arkansas River Valley of Oklahoma and Arkansas

                This paper includes the results of two-year long cultural resources mitigation and analysis project conducted by staff archaeologists from Open Range Archaeology LLC with assistance from students with the University of Oklahoma Anthropology Department and One Member of the Arbuckle Karst Research Institute. This analytical focus reflected the situation that most of the cultural resources collected from this project included lithic artifacts. A database for this research was designed to include several qualitative and quantitative attributes of over 7,600 lithic artifacts. This was to facilitate the collecting of data significant to the understanding of the choices made during the lithic material procurement, lithic material preparation, and lithic tool production processes. Parts of this project include sites within or near the Arkansas River Valley in counties immediately south of the Flint Hills ecoregion, and may help to interpret toolstone material procurement,utilization, and trade from this region.

Tricia Waggoner (Kansas Historical Society): Coal, Coke, and Clinkers: The Hunt for a Blacksmith Shop

                Local lore in Council Grove had always held there was a blacksmith shop at the Kaw Mission State Historic Site, but after 65 years of state ownership no one had found any physical evidence of it.  In 2016-2018 the Kansas State Historical Society used a variety of techniques, including metal detecting, soil probing,geophysics, and test excavations to locate and then excavate the blacksmith shop.  

Lunch Options (See map below)

1: Bison Witches Bar & Deli 1320 “P” St Lincoln, NE 68508

2: Pickleman’s Gourmet Cafe & Fuzzy’s Taco Shop 1442 “O” St. Lincoln, NE 68508

3: Noodles and Company & Rusty Taco 210 N. 14th St Lincoln, NE 68508

4: Yia Yia’s Pizza 1423 “O” St Lincoln, NE 68508

5: AmuManu Ramen Bar 1451 “O” St. Lincoln, NE 68508

6: Ali Baba Gyros 112 N 14th St, Lincoln, NE 68508

7: Honest Abe’s Burgers and Freedom 126 N 14 St, Lincoln, NE 68508

Notes: